1. Evaluate the model's usefulness or adaptability in designing e-instruction

Presenter Names: Kristen and Darcy

ARCS Model of Motivation
John Keller’s ARCS model is designed to encourage student’s motivation to learn. The model provides an outline to allow instructors to develop a learning environment and instruction that will hold a student’s interest. Motivating the student ensures that the learner will retain the new knowledge and skills learned through proper instruction. The ARCS model has been used in elementary and secondary schools, college, adult learning centers, cooperation’s and government agencies (www.arcsmodel.com).
In “John Keller’s ARCS model, there are four categories for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process; Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction” (learning- theories.com-/kellers-arcs). The following information was taken from Learning-Theories.com. to describe the four categories.
  • Two ways to gain attention
    • Perceptual Arousal- using surprise to gain interest
    • Inquiry Arousal- uses challenging questions and problems to gain curiosity
  • Methods for grabbing learners attention
    • Active Participation- games; role-play; activates
    • Variability- video’s, short lectures, mini- discussions
    • Humor-
    • Incongruity and Conflict- devil’s advocate approach
    • Specific Examples- visual stimuli
    • Inquiry- brainstorming activities
  • Establish relevance in order to increase a learner’s motivation. Six strategies described by Keller are;
  • Experience- Explain how new learning will use excisting skills.
  • Present Worth- What will the subject matter be for me today?
  • Future Usefulness- Tomorrow?
  • Needs Matching- Take advantage of dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power, affiliation
  • Modeling- Guest speakers, videos, tutoring
  • Choice- Allow students to use different methods allowing choice
  • Help students understand their likelihood of success
  • Provide Objectives and Prerequisites- helps students estimate the probability of success
  • Allow for success that is meaningful
  • Grow the learners- allow for small steps of growth
  • Feedback- Provide feedback and support internal attributions for success
  • Learner Control- Learner’s should feel some degree of control over their learning and assessment
  • Learning must be rewarded or satisfying in some way; praise’ sense of achievement
  • Make learner feel as though the skill is useful or beneficial by using newly acquired acknowledge in a real setting
  • Provide feedback and reinforcement- When learners appreciate the help they are motivated to learn
  • Don’t patronize the learner by over rewarding tasks


The ARCS model is supported through the Constructivism Theory. This theory states that individuals learn by applying personal experiences and knowledge to instruction and in the classroom. By using the ARCS model the teacher or instructor will engage the learner by using meaningful strategies in presenting material.