Presenters: James Pearce and Meredith Perkinsgagne9steps.jpg

Robert Gagne, born in 1916, in North Andover, Massachsetts, was highly recognized for the
Nine Events of Instruction. After earning his Ph.D. in Psychology from Brown University in 1940, Gagne went on to work for the United States Airforce studying military training problems. This is where he began to develop his best known work, The Conditions of Learning. Nine events represent external instructional activities that support internal mental processing of learning:

The Nine Events of Instruction

  1. Gaining Attention
  2. Informing the learner of the objective
  3. Stimulating recall of prereqisite learning
  4. Presenting the stimulus material
  5. Providing learning guidance
  6. Eliciting the performance
  7. Providing feedback about performance correctness
  8. Assessing the performance
  9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Carey, James O, Lou Carey, and Walter O Dick. Systematic Design of Instruction, The (7th Edition). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2008.
"Encyclopedia of Educational Technology." Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction. 25 Sep. 2009 <>

Gagne Event



Gain Attention

Present a problem, situation, use multimedia

Creates an interactive atmoshpere

Inform Learner of the Objective

State how learners will use the information, demonstrations, what will be accomplished

Outlines the information for the learner, create a bigger picture

Stimulate Recall of prerequisite learning

Revise, test, remind of prior knowledge

Creates connections to current information, build upon prior experience

Present the Stimulus Material

Through text, pictures, sounds, blocks of information, tutorials

Prepares the information in palettable chunks

Provide Learning Guidance

Showing of tools and use of information and provides cues when needed

Allows the learner to explore and learn through their own methods

Elicit the Performance

Learner demonstrations, practice the skills/knowledge gained

Chance for learner self-evaluation

Provide Feedback

Analyze the learners' skills and behaviors, provide step-by-step instructions

Enhances the learing, shows collaboration

Assess the Performance

Create a diagram, write an essay, tests

Used for progress and makes the learner apply their knowldege

Enhance Retention and Transfer

Discuss similar problems, have the learner teach another learner

Prepares the learner for the performance context

"Instructional Development Timeline." My eCoach. 24 Sep. 2009 <>

Case study for e-instruction

The model actually fits quite well for designing e-instruction. As a case study/example we are going to use the following asynchronous e-learning course aimed at higher ed instructors (who do have basic computer skills): "Using Microsoft PowerPoint software to present your ideas visually"

1. Gaining Attention:
Instructor demonstrates two ways to explain a particular concept - one via text the other via a powerpoint presentation - including visual diagrams, multimedia content etc. The learners are expected to see the benefit of the latter pretty quickly! Provided as "intro" to course. Learners download auto-playing PowerPoint file to their computer to view actual file.

2. Informing Learners of Objectives:
Instructor informs learners of their objectives via discussion board. Example objective "You will be able to insert media file into PowerPoint slide".

3. Stimulate Recall of Prerequisite Learning:
Learners are asked to gather images from the internet relating to their given subject and to storyboard out some ideas for their presentation. Learners are expected to post their ideas to discussion board; provide links to some image content etc.

4. Present the Stimulus Material:
Instructor breaks down objectives into instructional movies using Camtasia software - Learners play back movies using Windows Media Player on their computers.

5. Provide Learning Guidance:
To supplement instructional movies, learners are provided with documentation utilizing screenshots etc. Also links to useful "tutorials" already out there on the web (e.g. You Tube). Learners invited to share useful content they find themselves relating to PowerPoint software.

6. Elicit the Performance:
Learners are expected to post a basic presentation they have created utilizing some of the objectives (but not all).

7. Provide Feedback:
Instructor provides feedback on learners basic presentations via discussion board.

8. Assess the Performance:
Final Projects. Learners are expected to post presentations that demonstrate their abilities to perform ALL objectives.

9. Enhance Retention and Transfer:
Learners get to view each others final projects and provide feedback via discussion board. Final statement from each learner asking what they think they have learned and how they will be applying this knowledge posted also.

Learning Theory

Trying to categorizes Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction into a specifc learning theory of behaviorism, cognitivism, or constructivism is not an easy chore. Sources seem to conflict with one another. Since the information has been updated numerous times over a period of years, the ideas evolve and take on new meanings. The Nine events are grounded in behaviorism, but seems to have evolved into more of a cognative model.

Mergel, Brenda. "Learning Theories of Instructional Design." University of Saskatchewan. 25 Sep. 2009 <>

Just For Fun

Download the Gagne NIne Events of Instruction Screen Saver!