Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction
Gagne's book, The Conditions of Learning, first published in 1965, identified the mental conditions for learning. These were based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli. Gagne created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which correlate to and address the conditions of learning. The figure below shows these instructional events in the left column and the associated mental processes in the right column.

Instructional Event
Internal Mental Process
1. Gain attention
Stimuli activates receptors
2. Inform learners of objectives
Creates level of expectation for learning
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
Retrieval and activation of short-term memory
4. Present the content
Selective perception of content
5. Provide "learning guidance"
Semantic encoding for storage long-term memory
6. Elicit performance (practice)
Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification
7. Provide feedback
Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance
8. Assess performance
Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation
9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job
Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation

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